Introduction To The Mission for America
The Mission for America is a comprehensive, 10-year plan to overcome the twin crises facing the United States and the world:
- The failure to provide expected economic security and progress for most Americans and billions of people globally — a failure that is breaking the international post-war social compact and threatening the survival of liberal democracy; and
- the failure to avert catastrophic global warming, which, if the trend of the last few years continues, threatens life on earth as we know it this century.
This first edition of the Mission for America lays out a detailed plan for what could be achieved from 2025 to 2035 given expected economic, environmental, and technological realities of these years. We have designed the Mission for America to be feasible given only one change in the political landscape: That a U.S. president with a bold and unified team wins a simple majority in both chambers of Congress — and that they do so by enlisting the country in this Mission for America, or something like it, to reverse national decline, avert deadly global warming, and build a sustainable economy capable of providing prosperity for all.
In this general introduction, we cover the central concepts, institutions and tools of the Mission for America, starting with the idea of a national mission itself. The Mission for America is divided into a number of projects which we call "national missions," each of which transforms a different sector of the economy or solves a significant problem. Reading a single national mission on its own, one might judge that it’s too ambitious to be possible in a 10-year timeframe. The key to understanding the Mission for America is to see how the national missions work together to make each other possible. Each mission’s chapter references some of the ways that other missions create conditions that make seemingly impossible feats possible — for example how building a dense charging network allows universal EV adoption, how massively increasing electricity production makes a national hydrogen infrastructure possible, and how the resurrected Reconstruction Finance Corporation provides the necessary financing and coordination for all the national missions.
Most U.S. climate plans aim only to reduce domestic output of greenhouse gasses. The Mission for America, on the other hand, is primarily designed to achieve an international climate goal as well as a domestic one. The U.S. accounts for only 15% of global emissions. Bringing the U.S. economy all the way to zero would barely affect the world’s trajectory toward catastrophic warming. That’s why the Mission for America is designed around the goal of supplying the world with everything it will need to get to net-zero as rapidly as possible, including technology, machines, materials, services, financing and leadership. Bringing U.S. emissions as close to net-zero as possible, as fast as possible, is also part of the Mission for America. This will set an example for other countries, raise expectations for what nations can accomplish in a short time, and will provide a guaranteed domestic market to prime the pump for the industries that we must build to supply the world.
The Mission for America is based on an intellectual and policy framework of abundance. A national economy as large and advanced as America's is not a zero sum system. Reindustrialization does not come at the expense of our other national priorities — it’s how we fulfill them.
Every modern industrialized nation except the U.S. has coordinating and financing institutions capable of activating labor and capital on a large scale to develop new capacities and real wealth. Without those institutions, an economy is like an organism that no longer develops and advances, even if it continues to grow. The U.S. used to be well-equipped with development institutions. Unfortunately, they were dismantled after World War II as part of the general transition to neoliberal management of the economy and due to other peculiar American political factors. Since then, our economy has been growing and accumulating wealth, concentrated into fewer and fewer hands — but life for the majority of workers has become less affordable and more difficult in many ways. The Mission for America calls for restoring our nation’s capacity for public investment and economic coordination — primarily in the form of the World War II-era Reconstruction Finance Corporation — to drive not only economic growth and rising wealth, but the development of a sustainable economy that can provide prosperity for all.
Below, we briefly introduce each national mission chapter, with completed chapters provided as PDFs.
The reconstruction finance corporation
The resurrection of the Reconstruction Finance Corporation, which drove economic development and national renewal through the Great Depression and World War II, is in many ways the core of the Mission for America — the step that makes all the other steps possible.
In the history of all industrialized economies, social institutions such as public investment banks and planning agencies played critical roles in economic development and nation building. These are necessary to finance and coordinate investments that are too big, too risky, or long-term for private capital to accomplish on its own.
The United States has a historical pattern of creating, dismantling, and then scrambling to recreate its public financing and coordination institutions. It is time to recreate them once again. To this end, the Mission for America calls for resurrecting the Reconstruction Finance Corporation (RFC) which transformed the U.S. economy during the Great Depression and World War II. For more than a decade, the RFC was the largest enterprise in the world in terms of outlays and assets. It's mission was to fix systemic problems with and add capacities to the U.S. economy. It is responsible for many America's most important industries and much of our important infrastructure. It kept the U.S. financial system afloat through the Depression and financed much of the World War II economic mobilization. It was run by leaders from the private sector serving a public mission. It utterly transformed our economy and society.
The RFC's vast expenditures did not steal from other national priorities. It earned a profit for the U.S. treasury every year it operated, while financing and coordinating a massive expansion of the U.S. industrial and consumer economy. The record of the RFC is an example of how a national economy is not a zero-sum system and can be expanded in a way that benefits all members of a society.
Under the Mission for America, the resurrected RFC will be financed by a mix of federal appropriation, bonds, and perhaps some private capital as well. Structured as a publicly-owned independent corporation, the RFC will be free to participate in any sector of the economy, in any way that is legal, appropriate, and necessary to achieve the goal of building a prosperous and sustainable economy. The RFC will be organized into teams, with each team leading and holding responsibility for one national mission. Selecting the leaders of these teams will be among the most important decisions the Mission for America president will make.
01 – clean power
Converting to zero-emissions power while doubling or tripling electricity production is an essential step in building a clean economy. Electricity generation is the second largest source of greenhouse gasses in the U.S., accounting for 25% of annual emissions. Converting to 100% clean power is necessary to eliminate those emissions; massively increasing overall production is needed to support the electrification of nearly the entire economy. The national mission for clean power will:
- Transition electricity production to 100% clean sources by 2035 by financing and coordinating investments in clean energy, instituting a Clean Energy Standard (CES), and radically reforming the siting and permitting process for power production and transmission projects.
- Increase total energy production by at least 100% to accommodate electrification of the general economy as well as to power power-hungry applications such as CO2 drawdown and hydrogen production.
- Build new high voltage, long-distance power lines to provide affordable power to population centers while eliminating bottlenecks and shortages during demand peaks.
- Make energy storage capacity ubiquitous at every level of the nation's electricity infrastructure from power plants to homes and consumer appliances.
- Upgrade the nation's power grid and utilities to accommodate massively increased demand for electricity, including from transport, industry, buildings, hydrogen production, and more.
The United States is already in the midst of a clean energy boom. Billions of dollars have been invested in clean energy projects over just the last few years. As a result, the country regularly sets new records for wind, solar, and battery deployments. These investments have been made, in part, thanks to ambitious government programs that reward investors for putting their money into clean energy projects. The Inflation Reduction Act of 2023 promises to accelerate these developments even more. Despite this progress, the United States is not on track to reach 100% clean power within the next decade — or even by 2050.
Today there is more than enough private capital to finance approved clean power projects. There is a shortfall, however, when it comes to finding private capital willing to finance the initiation of projects. Federal, state, local and regional approval processes for building new power projects and connecting them to the grid delay projects for many years, often ultimately killing them. This makes initiating power projects too risky for most sources of private financing.
In addition to providing start-up capital for clean energy projects through the RFC, the National Mission for Clean Power calls for revolutionizing the permitting and siting processes at the state, local, regional, and national levels. The federal government will consolidate its permitting and review process for new clean energy projects into a new agency known as the Office of Clean Technology Permitting (OCTP). The OCTP will be a well-staffed and highly-funded agency that conducts a single environmental review for all clean energy projects. The Mission for America also calls for Congress to make many common-sense reforms to the federal permitting process, such as setting strict deadlines for federal reviews, limiting the timeframe for legal challenges, and expanding categorical exemptions for certain energy projects.
The key mechanism for driving the country to 100% clean power is the Clean Energy Standard (CES), administered by the Department of Energy and the Reconstruction Finance Corporation, which requires that utilities replace all fossil-fuel power sources with clean power by 2035. To ensure they stay on track, the DOE will track utilities' progress, while the DOE and RFC provide technical assistance and financing — in a mix of grants, loans, and investments.
Utility companies must upgrade their infrastructure to deliver greater flows of electricity to fully-electrified homes with multiple EVs in the garage, electrified buildings with parking lots full of EVs, electric trucking depots, and more. The current pace of these upgrades, carried out by most utilities in piecemeal fashion, is too slow. Utilities will be required to draw up five and ten year plans for comprehensively improving their infrastructure to handle massively increased demand. The business model of most large utilities disincentivizes comprehensive upgrades. Smaller and community-owned utilities simply don't have access to capital or expertise adequate to make comprehensive upgrades. Long term planning processes required by some state legislatures (for example, Georgia) have allowed some large utilities to make impressive and economical advances.
The policies introduced in this national mission will do more than build a clean energy grid. This national mission will create high-paying jobs for workers across multiple industries including utilities, manufacturing, energy development, and R&D firms. The energy transition also gives America an opportunity to rectify some of the injustices the current energy system has placed on low income and marginalized communities.
02 – EVs
The national mission for electric vehicles (EVs) is a comprehensive strategy to reposition the United States as a leader in the global EV market, accelerate the global transition to EVs, and provide millions of new high-paying jobs in the U.S. This mission will:
- Ramp up EV production to reach approximately 30 million units annually by 2035, returning America to the position of top global auto exporter, and greatly accelerating the global transition to EVs.
- Ensure that 100% of new light-duty vehicle sales in America are EVs by 2035.
- Provide generous subsidies and buy-back programs to encourage EV sales and to retire fossil-fuel vehicles.
- Construct the world's most efficient and user-friendly EV charging network to make EVs more convenient to own than gas-powered vehicles.
This mission aims to greatly accelerate the global shift to EVs by adding significantly to the total global EV supply. In doing so, it positions the U.S. to capture a significant portion of the burgeoning global EV market, creating millions of high-wage jobs for Americans. We have set a numeric target of 30 million EVs produced each year in America by 2035. This number represents approximately one third of the expected global demand, and roughly a threefold increase over the total number of cars and small trucks produced in America annually today.
The key to achieving such high production goals will be automation — which is also the key to ensuring EV jobs are high wage. Though EV production uses less labor per vehicle — especially when highly automated — the enormous overall increase in EV production means the auto workforce in America will grow significantly from today's levels.
The transition to EVs is a process already in motion, primarily driven by consumer preferences. However, production lags far behind demand. As the global auto industry stands on the brink of a complete shift to electric vehicles, the U.S. has a narrow window of opportunity to lead this transformation and reclaim its historical status as the world’s foremost auto exporter.
More than with most other missions, success here depends not on public financing, regulations, standards, or laws, but primarily on the leadership. The president and the RFC EV team must convince automakers and investors to bet on big investments in America. The RFC and the federal government — as well as state and local governments, and the United Auto Workers union — must offer to provide everything required for success that investors and automakers can't do themselves, such as workforce development, infrastructure, fast-tracking of approvals and permitting, rationalization of regulations, investment guarantees, and more. The RFC can even step up to provide investment financing if private investors won't budge (their loss, the Treasury's gain). But nothing will be possible if at least some automakers aren't willing to go big in America. If automakers already operating in the U.S. stubbornly refuse to bet on America, the president and RFC should work with other foreign automakers who would love to win access to U.S. markets and even finance EV startups (like China did, resulting in the birth of hundreds of new EV companies).
After lack of supply, the inconvenience of charging is the most important blocker to EV adoption. Fast chargers must be available in abundance everywhere people park their cars. Though most charging will take place overnight at drivers' homes, to make EV ownership as convenient as fossil-fuel vehicles, fast charging must be ubiquitous. The EV mission will subsidize the building and operation of public fast chargers in every community to kickstart the EV economy. This is one of the many "chicken and egg" problems across the Mission for America that the RFC must solve for. By building out a dense, reliable network of fast chargers everywhere, even before they are all needed, this changes the equation for car buyers when deciding between an EV and fossil-fuel powered vehicle. Subsidies phase out gradually over the 10 year span of the mission, with EV chargers expected to turn an unsubsidized profit for their owners by 2035.
Congress will be instrumental in passing comprehensive policies designed to make EVs more affordable and to buy back fossil-fuel powered vehicles. These policies will include substantial tax rebates and subsidies benefiting both consumers and businesses. All those measures will help, but around the world the record has shown that adequate supply and convenience in charging is the key to EV adoption.
By aligning federal resources, legislative action, and private sector innovation, this mission will not only revive the American auto industry but also significantly contribute to reducing national and global carbon emissions over the next decade.
03 – Steel
The national mission for a sustainable steel industry is central to the Mission for America because so many of the other national missions depend on large supplies of clean steel and because this is an industry that can provide many high paying, high quality jobs. This mission will:
- Revitalize and decarbonize the U.S. steel industry while increasing total U.S. steel production by approximately 50% — adding many high-wage jobs to the economy.
- Make all production of steel clean by 2035 by investing in electric arc furnace and green hydrogen reduction processes.
- End the shortage of electrical steel and other specialty products that threatens the American transition to EVs and a clean power grid.
The American steel industry was the largest and most advanced in the world for almost a century but has declined in relative and absolute terms since the 1970s. Though it retains the #4 position in the world, it produces less than 1/10th of China's output and 1/2 of India's. Japan, a high-wage country with less than half America's population produces slightly more than us. The decline of the American steel industry resulted in the loss of millions of good jobs, an increasing reliance on imports, and shortages of specialized steel that have burdened other industries in the U.S. Most major American steel companies have shown little to no interest in reversing this downward spiral.
The world stands at the precipice of a revolution in steel production. Electric arc furnaces powered by clean electricity and the green hydrogen direct reduction processes have given industry the means to replace dirty steel production with clean. Though clean steel still involves some CO2 emissions, they are a small fraction compared with the status quo.
The U.S. steel industry is cleaner than most countries' because it is mainly driven by electric arc furnaces which use recycled steel. The U.S. recycles a very high share of the steel it produces, but some new steel still must be fabricated. Making that process clean requires the building of hydrogen-powered "direct reduction" furnaces — this relatively new technology will require significant investment by the RFC to kickstart at a scale sufficient to meet America's present needs and the increased demand from the Mission for America.
So far, U.S. steel makers have been slow to invest in this new process. The national mission for steel calls for an end to the apathy of the American steel industry and a new focus on building the world’s first clean steel industry.
The global steel industry accounts for 7% of total global emissions. Solving the climate crisis will require a significant increase in global steel production while at the same time converting all steel production to clean processes. The U.S. must step up to provide sufficient amounts of clean steel to ensure the global transition to a clean economy move as fast as possible.
This national mission will build the world’s first clean steel industry by focusing on the following actions:
- The president will use all the tools of mission leadership to challenge the intransigence of steel industry leaders and pressure them to invest in new clean steel capacity — going so far as to use the RFC to kickstart new companies if necessary.
- Reconstruction Finance Corporation will invest billions of dollars in both existing companies and start-ups to build new clean steel production capacity.
- The Reconstruction Finance Corporation will convene an emergency council to end the electrical steel shortage and to monitor other types of specialized steel to prevent future shortages.
- Congress will incentivize clean steel production through new subsidies as well as regulations that phase out the production of dirty steel by 2035.
- Congress will create a Carbon Border Adjustment Tax that taxes the importation of dirty steel, thus supporting America’s clean steel industry and encouraging other countries to invest in their own clean steel production.
04 – Hydrogen
For sectors of the economy that cannot be electrified, green hydrogen, produced by 100% clean electricity, is one alternative. This mission will build the infrastructure necessary to supply green hydrogen to every relevant application. The national mission for hydrogen will:
- Build a national green hydrogen industry with the capacity to replace all current dirty hydrogen production and to power everything that can't be electrified — including airplanes, long-haul shipping, and steel production by 2035.
- Invest heavily in industries needed to build the hydrogen economy, such as electrolyzers.
- Require, assist, and finance producers of dirty hydrogen to convert to green hydrogen production facilities.
- Build hydrogen production facilities at every port and airport by 2035 to enable the decarbonization of aviation and shipping. (The national missions for shipping and aviation cover developing and producing hydrogen-powered ships and planes.)
Hydrogen has long been touted as a fuel of the future, but, until recently, was limited to only niche industrial uses. The falling price of clean electricity and other technologies will soon make unsubsidized green hydrogen competitive with dirty hydrogen. Recently initiated Biden administration subsidies make subsidized green hydrogen competitive now (against dirty hydrogen which is also subsidized via subsidies and support for fossil fuels).
With almost every application for hydrogen, a chicken-and-egg problem prevents the private sector from accomplishing a transition in the absence of public leadership and financing. Without an affordable and convenient supply of hydrogen, it doesn’t make sense to invest in new hydrogen-powered planes, ships, industries, and infrastructure. Likewise, without large-scale demand for hydrogen, investing in hydrogen production and distributions is a non-starter.
The national mission for hydrogen calls for, among other projects, building green hydrogen production facilities at every airport and port to solve for the supply side of the chicken-and-egg problem. Other national missions, such as those for clean aviation and shipping, will solve the demand side of the problem. The specifics of hydrogen transport and clean hydrogen production make it most efficient to build production facilities very close to where hydrogen is needed. Unfortunately, conversion of long-distance gas lines to be used with hydrogen is not technically feasible.
05 – Buildings and Homes
Building and homes are a significant source of greenhouse gas emissions and of energy waste. Much of our housing stock is old, unhealthy, or unsafe for residents. A housing shortage is driving prices beyond affordability for most Americans. Since the COVID pandemic, cities and towns face a glut of unoccupied office space, some of which must be refashioned for other purposes or replaced. All of this will require millions of new construction workers, creating as many good, high-paying jobs. The national mission for homes and buildings will:
- Organize millions of workers — many of whom will be new entrants into the workforce — to overhaul America's homes and buildings for CO2 emissions, energy efficiency, comfort, health, and safety.
- Require states to streamline permitting and approval processes for building projects — tying federal aid and funding of all types to compliance, in the same way the federal government does today to enforce national transportation rules.
- Establish a federal project to provide training and support for millions of new workers to enter or reenter the construction workforce.
- Finance and coordinate the upgrading of most homes and buildings by 2035 through long-term green bonds, issued by the RFC, that are paid by utility companies out of savings from efficiency.
- Compensate homeowners and tenants for the inconvenience of upgrading homes to ensure uptake.
The United States housing sector has two major problems: millions of homes are contributing to the climate crisis by using fossil fuel-powered heaters, stoves and other appliances; and a national housing shortage has caused the costs of owning or renting a home to skyrocket. A comprehensive national housing policy must focus on both problems by retrofitting existing homes for sustainability, comfort, and safety — and building millions of new zero-emission, highly efficient homes.
Residential building emissions primarily arise from homes using fossil fuel for heating, cooking, and laundry. These processes contribute to the climate crisis and produce pollutants that harm the health of residents. Investing in home electrification and energy efficiency retrofits will decrease a home’s carbon footprint and impact on the grid, lower monthly utility bills, and improve the health of those living there.
An important way to make housing affordable is to build more homes. The 2010s were the slowest decade for new home construction in modern American history, and since then, the total supply of homes has remained consistently below demand. Investing in sustainable housing will help lower costs and make housing affordable for all Americans.
America's stock of commercial buildings is another major source of carbon emissions. Building owners are nowhere near on track to decarbonize buildings. As with homes, public financing will be necessary, and will be provided by the Reconstruction Finance Corporation. American cities are now filled with empty office buildings. Though it is difficult, many of these building can be converted to other purposes. Others will need to be dismantled, recycled, and replaced with apartment buildings or other kinds of buildings.
Homeowners, tenants, and landlords cannot be expected to pay the costs of upgrades. Requiring them to pay will render this mission, and likely the entire Mission for America, politically unpopular. Moreover, when the typical homeowner, renter, and landlord are all struggling with high costs, it makes no sense to add an additional burden on them.
The workforce required for this mission will be enormous. One of the Mission for America's goals is to build an economy that can provide prosperity for everyone. Home and building upgrade work has jobs of all skill levels and will be needed in every community. This is the perfect project to provide good jobs to people who have been out of the workforce for a long time or who have no work experience. It can provide good work for people reestablishing their lives after prison, drug addicts in recovery, and others who have difficulty getting into the workforce today. There will also be much work for high-skilled and specialized construction workers.
We recommend that the RFC finance this huge project by issuing long-term green bonds that will be paid back by energy savings paid out by utility companies. Instead of seeing energy savings on their utility bills, rate payers will enjoy all the benefits of the upgrades for free.
06 – Aircraft
Air travel is one of the fastest growing and most difficult to abate sources of CO2 emissions. The national mission for aviation will:
- Develop electric and hydrogen powered aircraft that can replace all types of planes currently in use —including long-haul jets — through a moonshot style partnership between the Federal Government, the RFC, and the U.S. aerospace industry.
- Establish a domestic clean aviation industry based on electric and hydrogen technology.
- Retain America's position as the top global aircraft exporter.
- Make passenger airplanes more comfortable, faster, and cheaper to fly than today's.
The aviation industry produces 3% of global emissions and it is one of the fastest growing sources of greenhouse gas because as world incomes grow, more and more people want to fly. Technology doesn't yet exist to power large and long-haul jets with clean energy. So-called sustainable jet fuels are anything but: producing biofuels at the scale needed to power the world's growing jet fleet would be massively destructive to the environment, would still produce greenhouse gas emissions, and would ultimately be impossible. Many climate activists have therefore called for heavy taxes on flying or outright bans. We see this as being equally unfeasible as sustainable jet fuel.
Planes are already flying with electricity and hydrogen. Large jets were flown using hydrogen as early as the 1950s. Major technical challenges must be overcome before large passenger jetliners can fly on hydrogen, however.
The most difficult of these has to do with the structural design of airplanes, not from the technology around burning hydrogen. Hydrogen passenger airplanes will likely need to depart from the established "tube and wing" design to create more volume inside aircraft to make room for the cooled hydrogen fuel tanks. The resulting roomier "flying wing" design comes with many benefits for passengers and airlines.
Switching to a flying wing design is something jet makers should be working on now anyways, aside from the question of hydrogen. The new design would greatly improve fuel efficiency and fit more passengers with greater comfort (allowing, for example, a walking path around the outside of the plane). But in a world with only two major jumbo jet manufacturers, neither feels pressure to innovate on that scale.
The U.S. has one jumbo jet manufacturer, Boeing, which relies on a large number of subcontractors from among the U.S. aerospace industry. The Mission for America calls for launching a massive effort on par with the Apollo program that took humanity to the moon to mobilize Boeing and the entire U.S. aerospace industry to have hydrogen powered jumbo jets in mass production by 2035. This effort will be led by a team at the RFC, that will have billions to invest, and that will rely on the best practices drawn from the Apollo moonshot, recent successful experiences managing aerospace contractors such as SpaceX, and everything in between.
Of course, there is no way to force Boeing to participate. If Boeing refuses, then the RFC should invest in starting a new company and/or work with other U.S. aerospace companies willing to take on the challenge.
With more than 100 billion dollars in aircraft exports at stake, this mission is absolutely critical to protect and grow American prosperity.
07 – Trucking
American trucking emits a large share of greenhouse gas emissions and environmental pollution and must be transitioned from fossil-fuel powered vehicles to zero-emission vehicles (ZEVs) powered by batteries, and possibly in some cases hydrogen. Few sectors of the economy are more important than trucking, which is involved in the transport of all goods. This mission will:
- Establish an industry producing electric semi-trucks by 2035, capable of supplying America and the world for a rapid transition away from fossil fuels.
- Build a national charging and battery-swapping infrastructure that can support the entire electrified U.S. trucking fleet.
- Ramp up production of small and medium sized electric trucks (and all class 4-7 vehicles) to reach 100% ZEVs by 2035.
Other goals which are necessary to make the above possible are found in the missions for EVs and clean power, such as improving the grid and providing assistance to utilities to accommodate the needs of truck charging facilities at truck stops, trucking companies, warehouses, and other sites.
The diverse range of vehicles included in this national mission — from small delivery trucks to large semis — requires policymakers to consider each vehicle type's needs and recent progress carefully. Some medium and heavy-duty vehicles, such as buses and delivery vans, already have ZEV options for sale and on the roads. For those vehicles, policymakers simply must accelerate a process already in motion. Other vehicles, particularly the largest ones like long-haul semi-trucks, are more challenging to decarbonize and will require more aggressive public investment and coordination.
We allow a longer timeline for the heaviest vehicles to transition because new battery technology will need to be developed, and the sheer quantity of materials for those large batteries may be difficult to acquire in a short timeframe.
This mission is imperative for two reasons. The first is that fossil fuel-powered trucks and other heavy-duty vehicles are an environmental disaster. Although they represent only about 5% of the total vehicles on the road, they account for approximately 21% of the transportation sector's emissions. Fossil fuel-powered MHDVs also contribute to local pollution that disproportionately harms marginalized communities. Second, the global market for ZEVs is young and undefined — providing America the opportunity to lead the world in manufacturing ZEVs should policymakers and industry leaders act quickly.
This national mission will accomplish its goals with the following and other strategies:
- The president will convene leaders from the vehicle manufacturing and fleet operations industries to win their support for the national mission.
- The Reconstruction Finance Corporation will invest in new ZEV manufacturing and provide financing to fleet managers to purchase American-made ZEVs.
- Incentivizing companies to purchase ZEVs through generous financial subsidies and future a ban on fossil fuel powered-MHDVs.
- Investing in private and public charging stations and hydrogen refueling stations.
08 – Shipping
The national mission for shipping will:
- Build a hydrogen-powered shipping industry that aims to supply the world with clean shipping capacity by 2035.
- Reach 100% clean shipping in U.S. domestic shipping and inland waterways by 2035.
- Become a major exporter of hydrogen powered ships by 2035.
- Modernize America's ports deteriorating shipping infrastructure. (Hydrogen production and fueling infrastructure will be built as part of the national mission for hydrogen.)
Modernizing America's ports and transitioning to a zero-emissions shipping fleet would decrease U.S. emissions and set a new international model for other countries to follow. America's inland waterways make up our domestic "water highways" and transport vast amounts of goods across the country. The US marine transport system is vital to the American economy, contributing over $500 billion to America's GDP and employing more than 10 million workers.
Investments in domestic ports and inland waterway infrastructure have not kept pace with changes in shipping practices. As a result, America's waterway infrastructure has begun to deteriorate. Infrastructure studies consistently find America's ports to be falling behind that of countries like China or Japan. The shipping industry is also a significant contributor to global warming, responsible for around 3% of America's yearly emissions.
This national mission provides a comprehensive plan to modernize America's waterway infrastructure, transition the industry to zero-emission shipping technologies, and rebuild a domestic ship-building industry.
The Reconstruction Finance Corporation will provide the financing and cross-industry coordination necessary to rebuild America's ship-building industry around zero-emission hydrogen ships.
Congress will need to significantly increase its funding for the maintenance, upgrade, and expansion of its inland waterways.The president will work with key international peers to create a global network of hydrogen refueling stations at major international ports.
09 – Farming
The national mission for agriculture will:
- Reduce CO2 emissions from farm transport, machines, and buildings to near zero by 2035.
- Reconfigure federal farm subsidies, including crop insurance programs, to encourage adoption of known sustainable farming practices. Increase the capital and assistance available to farmers to upgrade to more sustainable and efficient farming practices.
- Reorient the USDA and related institutions around the mission of improving farmers livelihoods by rewarding them for switching to more sustainable and efficient practices, protecting land and water resources, reducing greenhouse gas emissions, and storing carbon.
- Spend on research and development of sustainable farming practices to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and sequester carbon. Invest heavily in researching and developing ways to reduce methane emissions from animals and nitrous oxide emissions from fertilizer.
- Invest in meat substitutes ranging from plant-based products to lab grown meat. Invest in marketing campaigns to encourage adoption of meat substitutes.
Of all areas of the economy, agriculture will perhaps be the most difficult to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Methane emissions — far more powerful than CO2, though more temporary — come from animals and cannot be easily abated. Nitrous Oxide — just as long lasting as CO2 and many times more powerful — results from adding fertilizer to soil to increase farming yields and is the basis for the agricultural revolution that allowed the human population to explode to its present eight billion.
On the other hand, American farmers already work so closely with, and receive so much support from, the federal government that many opportunities and mechanisms exist to make progress.
The national mission for farming will provide huge quantities of investment capital, through the RFC, to farmers to upgrade to more sustainable farming methods — some of which offer higher yields per input. Simultaneously, USDA programs that currently provide incentives for excessive fertilization and other harmful practices must be changed to favor sustainable practices instead. Federal crop insurance programs must be changed to support farmers for following sustainable practices even when they lead to lower yields.
10 – Geothermal
The national mission for geothermal energy aims to revolutionize the United States' energy landscape by harnessing the vast, untapped potential of geothermal power that recent technological innovations have made possible. This mission will:
- Invest in cutting-edge geothermal technologies, notably Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS), which utilize advanced drilling techniques similar to fracking but designed to access deep geothermal energy sources safely and sustainably.
- Scale up geothermal energy production to significantly contribute to the nation's clean energy mix by 2035.
- Support the development and deployment of these technologies across various geographical locations, making geothermal energy a nationwide endeavor.
- Facilitate the transition of workers and resources from traditional energy sectors to this burgeoning field, ensuring job creation and economic growth.
Geothermal energy has long been a promising but underutilized resource. Recent technological advancements, particularly in deep drilling and EGS, have brought us to a tipping point where geothermal can become a cornerstone of America's clean energy future. These techniques allow us to tap into the Earth's heat with minimal environmental impact, offering a reliable and virtually inexhaustible source of energy.
The challenge has been to develop and deploy these technologies on a scale that can make a meaningful impact. This national mission addresses this challenge head-on, envisioning a future where geothermal energy is not just a niche player but a major contributor to our energy needs. It involves a concerted effort to build infrastructure, enhance technological capabilities, and establish a skilled workforce.
By investing in geothermal energy, the United States can achieve multiple goals: reducing dependence on fossil fuels, mitigating climate change, and revitalizing the nation's industrial and technological leadership. This mission is not just about tapping into the Earth's heat; it's about unlocking a future of sustainable prosperity and energy independence.
11 – Manhattan
The national mission for Climate Crisis 'Manhattan Projects' will oversee a collection of ambitious, large-scale research and development initiatives. These projects aim to tackle some of the most pressing technological challenges in mitigating climate change. This mission will:
- Spearhead a comprehensive CO2 drawdown project to develop effective methods for removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere.
- Advance point-source carbon capture technologies, focusing on capturing emissions directly from industrial sources like smokestacks and overcoming storage issues.
- Innovate solutions for eliminating and reducing atmospheric methane, including addressing methane emissions from livestock.
- Develop greenhouse gas emission-free concrete, revolutionizing one of the most carbon-intensive industries.
- Create alternatives to current fertilizer technology, reducing nitrous oxide emissions, a potent greenhouse gas.
These 'Manhattan Projects' represent a concerted effort to accelerate technological breakthroughs in areas where advancements are critically needed to combat the climate crisis. The approach is two-pronged, with pure research initiatives funded by Congress and investments in potential revenue-generating technologies supported by the Reconstruction Finance Corporation (RFC).
The CO2 drawdown project will focus on scalable and sustainable methods to actively remove existing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, a crucial step in reversing climate change. Meanwhile, the point-source carbon capture initiative aims to prevent new emissions from entering the atmosphere, targeting industrial hotspots.
Addressing methane, one of the most potent greenhouse gases, requires a dual approach. The mission includes projects both to reduce methane emissions, particularly from agricultural sources like cows, and to develop methods for removing existing methane from the atmosphere.
The initiative to create emission-free concrete tackles one of the most challenging sectors in terms of carbon footprint, aiming to transform the way buildings and infrastructure are constructed. Similarly, the focus on fertilizer technology looks to innovate in agricultural practices, reducing the environmental impact while maintaining or enhancing productivity.
These ambitious 'Manhattan Projects' are not just about developing new technologies; they are about reshaping entire industries and practices to create a sustainable future. By bringing together the best minds and resources, these initiatives strive to find solutions that can be implemented on a global scale, positioning the United States as a leader in climate crisis innovation.
12 – Nuclear Power
The national mission for nuclear power introduces a groundbreaking approach to expand America's nuclear energy capacity. After the transition to a clean economy, America will be producing several times more electricity that it is today to power vehicles, homes, buildings, and industry — and to meet the enormous electricity needs of producing green hydrogen to power shipping and aviation, and perhaps for powering CO2 drawdown and carbon and methane capture mechanisms. Meeting all of these needs using only wind, solar, hydro and geothermal will take a terrible toll on the environment in terms of materials that will need to be mined and fabricated, and land and water use. This mission will:
- Launch a campaign to educate the public about the safety of nuclear power and dispel long held myths and misunderstandings of its imagined dangers.
- Utilize the military's existing nuclear power program, which operates outside civilian regulatory frameworks, to construct nuclear power plants on military bases across the United States.
- Connect these military-based nuclear plants to the national grid, significantly boosting the country's power supply.
- Allocate a substantial portion of the energy generated by these plants for critical processes like CO2 drawdown, green hydrogen production, and other high-energy-demand applications.
- Leverage the president's emergency powers and executive orders, along with Congressional legislation, to overcome traditional regulatory roadblocks and accelerate the deployment of these nuclear facilities.
No energy source or industry is more misunderstood than nuclear power. Nuclear power has been stigmatized by a worldwide fascination with the destructive power of atomic bombs and the seemingly magical power of atomic energy, and a fundamental misunderstanding of the nature of and dangers of radiation. Social movements and popular impulses that rightly object to and hate the destruction of the environment by modern technology and industry have often seen nuclear power as the most striking representation of the problem.
Nuclear power plants, however, are the safest form of energy production if you count actual deaths, injuries, and harm to humans — and even safer if you include animals and the environment in the equation. That is true when including all of the old-fashioned nuclear power plants in the world. New technologies, however, can make destructive accidents as good as impossible.
Industrial accidents related to chemicals or fossil fuels are virtually uncountable and have taken the lives of hundreds of thousands of people over the years. Meanwhile, pollution from burning fossil fuels kill millions of people every year.
You can count on one hand the number of nuclear power plant accidents that injured humans. The famous accidents that released significant radioactive materials into the environment — Chernobyl and Fukushima — killed less than 100 plant workers through radiation exposure. While that is a great tragedy, far more workers than that are killed in oil drilling jobs alone every year. The trauma from those two, and other nuclear accidents such as Three Mile Island, came not from radiation but a fear of radiation. In Fukushima, more than 100,000 people were unnecessarily evacuated due to an irrational fear of exposure to low level radiation. Dozens of people were killed during transportation of the evacuees alone, and thousands more died as a result of the evacuation. If they had stayed home, they would either not have been exposed to additional radiation at all, or to elevated levels equivalent to taking a long distance flight.
Building nuclear power plants on military bases presents a unique solution to bypass the extensive national, state, and local regulations that typically hinder nuclear power expansion. It capitalizes on the military's proven expertise in nuclear energy, cultivated through its long history of safely operating nuclear reactors.
This innovative strategy for nuclear power development is both necessary and feasible, given the urgency to increase America's electricity production capacity, especially for clean and carbon-neutral sources. Building nuclear power plants on military bases presents a unique solution to bypass the extensive national, state, and local regulations that typically hinder nuclear power expansion. It capitalizes on the military's proven expertise in nuclear energy, cultivated through its long history of safely operating nuclear reactors.
The mission acknowledges the critical role of nuclear power in achieving a carbon-neutral future. It seeks to marry the untapped potential of military resources with the nation's broader energy goals, creating a synergy that accelerates progress toward sustainable energy independence. This approach not only addresses the immediate need for increased electricity production but also sets a precedent for innovative, cross-sector collaboration in tackling the nation's energy challenges.
13 – Water
The national mission for upgrading America's water systems is a comprehensive initiative designed to address the growing water crisis in various parts of the country. This mission will:
- Develop and implement large-scale water collection and storage infrastructure to enhance water security in regions facing shortages.
- Construct long-distance aqueducts and transportation systems to move water from water-rich to water-poor areas, ensuring access to water everywhere.
- Invest in advanced water management and conservation technologies and practices to maximize efficiency and sustainability in water use.
Water scarcity has become an increasingly pressing issue in the United States, with many regions, particularly in the West and Southwest, experiencing severe droughts and diminishing water supplies. Climate change exacerbates these challenges, making traditional water management strategies insufficient.
This national mission recognizes the urgent need for a paradigm shift in how America manages its water resources. The proposed solutions are not only about addressing the immediate shortages but also about building a resilient and sustainable water infrastructure for the future. By harnessing the nation's technological and engineering capabilities, the mission aims to create a water system that can withstand the challenges posed by a changing climate and growing population.
The construction of long-distance aqueducts and water transportation infrastructure will require very large construction and pipeline projects reminiscent of historic feats of engineering, but with modern technology and environmental considerations at the forefront. These projects, along with the enhancement of water collection and storage facilities, will be pivotal in securing America's water future. They will also, of course, create many new high-paying jobs.
14 – Toxins
The national mission for eliminating toxins from the food and water supply is a crucial step towards ensuring the health and safety of all Americans. This mission will:
- Establish a new branch of the EPA that investigates where and how toxins are entering human bodies and find their ultimate sources in industrial and other processes.
- Implement federal regulations to ban — or make safe — processes in industry and elsewhere that are responsible for toxins ultimately entering human bodies.
- Offer grants and financial incentives to assist companies in transitioning to toxin-free production and packaging methods.
- Invest in research and development of alternative, safe materials for use in food and water processing industries.
- Launch national monitoring and compliance programs to ensure adherence to new standards and to track progress in toxin reduction.
The presence of toxins in our food and water supply poses a significant threat to public health. From pesticides in agriculture to chemicals in packaging, numerous harmful substances enter our food, water, air and products we put on our skin. Reducing human exposure to toxins requires an approach that combines regulatory action with support for businesses and consumers.
By banning harmful toxins, the government sets a clear standard for food, water, air, and product safety. Understanding that such a transition can be challenging for producers, the mission includes financial and technical support to help industries adapt. This support is crucial for smaller businesses that might otherwise struggle to meet new requirements.
Investing in research and development is critically important. We must develop safe, sustainable alternatives to current practices, ensuring that eliminating one toxin does not lead to the introduction of another.
The success of this mission also hinges on robust monitoring and compliance mechanisms. These will ensure that the new standards are not only implemented but also effective in reducing toxins in our food and water supply.
15 – Public Transport
The national mission for public transport is a transformative initiative aimed at modernizing and expanding the United States' public transportation systems. This mission will:
- Provide substantial grants to state and local governments for the electrification and expansion of public transport networks, facilitating a nationwide shift to more efficient and clean modes of transportation.
- Establish a national clean public transport standard, mandating the complete electrification of all public transportation by 2035. States and cities failing to meet this target will face significant penalties, including the loss of federal funding in various areas.
- Leverage the capabilities of the Reconstruction Finance Corporation (RFC) to drive investment in industries essential for this transition. This includes manufacturing electric buses and trains, converting ride-sharing services to electric vehicles, and fostering the development of light electric vehicles for short-distance urban transport.
- Work with ride sharing companies, taxi drivers, and local public transport systems to establish a new mode of public transportation in light electric vehicles for getting around town — for example, from a subway station to a home, or to locations not adequately served by subways and busses.
This mission recognizes the crucial role of public transportation in reducing emissions, alleviating traffic congestion, and improving urban livability. Electrifying public transport systems not only addresses environmental concerns but also enhances the quality and reliability of services, benefiting commuters across the nation.
The large-scale funding provided to state and local governments will accelerate the electrification of buses, trains, and other forms of public transport. The national clean public transport standard sets a clear and ambitious goal, ensuring a unified effort across the country towards a greener future.
Adding a system of light (possibly automated) electric vehicles is the last step in public transportation that will allow the vast majority of people to no longer need cars for their everyday transport needs. Among public transport advocates, there is a bis against
Furthermore, the RFC's active involvement in scaling necessary industries is a testament to the mission's comprehensive approach. By supporting existing companies and launching new ventures in vehicle manufacturing and related sectors, the RFC will play a pivotal role in creating a robust ecosystem for electric public transport. This initiative will not only meet immediate transportation needs but also foster long-term economic growth and innovation.
16 – Training a New Workforce
The national mission for workforce development and integration is a comprehensive federal initiative designed to significantly expand and enhance the American workforce. This mission will:
- Attract up to 30 million additional workers into the workforce, targeting "discouraged workers" and unemployed young workers in part by providing paid training, healthcare, childcare, and special services and treatment for people struggling with addiction, untreated mental illness, and other problems that are preventing millions of Americans from joining the workforce.
- Implement a proactive international recruitment strategy to attract qualified immigrants, focusing on skills and qualities aligned with workforce needs.
- Establish a network of federal workforce training and support centers in every community that will provide a range of services including transportation, childcare, healthcare, career coaching, counseling, and more to support new workers in joining or joining the workforce.
- Operate this federal program essentially as a staffing agency, offering competitive wages and benefits to workers while solving labor shortages for employers across various sectors, with a particular focus on supporting the national mission for homes and buildings.
This mission is inspired in part by the transformative impact of the New Deal's Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC), which mobilized millions of unemployed workers in beneficial projects all over the country. As with the CCC, the approach of this mission is holistic, recognizing that barriers to employment often extend beyond the lack of job opportunities.
At the heart of this mission are community labor centers, envisioned as hubs of support and resources, addressing the diverse needs of workers and their families. By offering comprehensive services in one location — and transportation between home, the centers, and job sites — they will remove many of the logistical and practical obstacles that currently prevent individuals from entering or re-entering the workforce.
By actively engaging discouraged workers, young unemployed individuals, and immigrants, the initiative seeks to tap into a vast pool of potential that has been largely underutilized. This approach not only addresses current labor shortages but also enriches the workforce with a diverse range of skills and perspectives.
The integration with other national missions, particularly the homes and buildings mission, ensures that the newly trained workforce has ample opportunities to apply their skills. This not only aids in the successful execution of other missions but also guarantees steady employment and growth opportunities for the workers involved.
This mission is currently designed primarily to add millions of new workers to a labor force that is stretched thin. In America today, we don't have an unemployment problem, rather our problems are that too many jobs are low quality and low pay, and that too many workers are employed in sectors that do not contribute to economic development and building real wealth. In this context, it will be necessary to bring a huge number of workers into the workforce — similarly to what happened in World War II. If, however, the Mission for America takes place in a context of high unemployment — e.g. due to advances in AI or an economic crisis — then the workforce mission will need to be reimagined to focus on retraining and reintegrating laid off workers back into the workforce in new roles and even totally different industries.
17 – Industry
Though U.S. industrial and trade policies of the past several decades have caused domestic industries to atrophy, the U.S. is still one of the largest industrial economies in the world. From machine tools to chemicals and everything in between, we need to modernize and scale up domestic industries to supply the ambitious projects of the Mission for America. Simultaneously, we need to transition industry away from fossil-fuels and greenhouse gas emitting processes. The mission for industry will:
- Facilitate the Reconstruction Finance Corporation (RFC) to make substantial investments in various industries, aiding them in transitioning to cleaner, more sustainable production processes.
- Implement a Clean Manufacturing Standard (CMS), establishing rigorous emission reduction targets for different industrial sectors based on their unique technical and physical capabilities.
- Make strategic investments to scale industries up to meet the demands of the Mission for America and the world transition to a clean economy.
This mission addresses the critical challenge of decarbonizing industries that are significant sources of CO2 emissions, such as cement, chemicals, and other manufacturing sectors. The approach recognizes that each industry has its own set of possibilities and constraints when it comes to reducing emissions.
The RFC's role is pivotal in providing the financial backing and coordination necessary for industries to overhaul their production methods. These investments are designed not only to support the adoption of existing clean technologies but also to spur innovation in new, more efficient processes. The RFC will work closely with industry leaders, experts, and other stakeholders to identify the most effective paths for decarbonization, reduction of other greenhouse gases, and scaling to meet the needs and expected needs of the Mission for America's projects and world markets.
The Clean Manufacturing Standard (CMS) is another cornerstone of this mission. It will set clear, achievable targets for emission reductions, tailored to the specific circumstances of each industry. The CMS will be dynamic, evolving with technological advancements and increased understanding of what is feasible for each sector. This standard will encourage industries to strive for continuous improvement in their environmental performance.
Through this mission, the United States aims to lead by example in industrial decarbonization, demonstrating that economic growth and environmental stewardship can go hand in hand. This initiative is not just about meeting emission targets; it's about transforming industries into more sustainable, efficient, and competitive entities in the global market.
18 – Cooling the planet
This national mission aims to develop a strategic approach to counteract the immediate effects of global warming through controlled atmospheric intervention. The mission will:
- Establish a comprehensive research program under NASA to investigate the viability and safety of releasing reflective materials into the stratosphere. This program will focus on studying substances like sulfate aerosols or other particulates that can effectively increase the Earth's albedo (its ability to reflect sunlight).
- Prepare an operational plan and infrastructure for atmospheric intervention, ready to be executed when an international consensus, likely through a United Nations resolution, on the necessity of this approach in the face of escalating global warming impacts.
- Foster global dialogue and collaboration to build a broad scientific and political agreement on the use of this technology and internationally accepted and trusted systems for monitoring all effects of the intervention and any unintended consequences that develop.
The concept of introducing reflective particles into the stratosphere is a response to the urgent need for solutions that can provide immediate relief from rapidly escalating global temperatures. While long-term efforts to slow and ultimately reverse global warming must focus on reducing greenhouse gas emissions, this mission addresses the possibility of a near-term intervention to prevent catastrophic climate consequences.
The consequences of global warming are already intolerable and catastrophic — they are just unevenly distributed around the world, with many invisible to humans except through scientific investigation. Temperatures in many densely populated parts of the world regularly exceed 50 degrees centigrade (122 degrees Fahrenheit). Parts of the oceans are so hot and acidic now that entire ecosystems are dying.
Much of the damage caused by high temperatures will be irreversible, which is why we argue for using available technology to cool the planet while we end greenhouse gas emissions and figure out how to draw down excess greenhouse gasses. It is reasonable to worry about the unintended and unknown risks of atmospheric interventions — but we are already intervening in the atmosphere with known destructive effects, and they are extinguishing entire species and killing millions of people every year. The effect of releasing reflective materials in the upper atmosphere is temporary, as the aerosols come back to earth over time. Volcanos and the burning of fossil fuels release similar particles, so we already have a lot of data to inform our understanding of what would happen if we took this path.
NASA's role in this initiative is crucial, given its expertise in atmospheric science and technology. The research program will rigorously assess the efficacy and risks associated with stratospheric aerosol injection or similar methods. This assessment will include the potential impacts on weather patterns, ozone layer health, and global ecosystems.
Given the global nature of this intervention, international cooperation and agreement are paramount. The mission therefore also includes a significant diplomatic component, working towards a global consensus on when and how such an intervention should be deployed. The aim is to ensure that any action taken is based on a sound understanding of the risks and benefits, with broad international support.
This mission recognizes the controversial nature of atmospheric intervention but also the potential necessity of such measures in the face of dire climate emergencies. It is a proactive step towards being prepared for a scenario where immediate planetary cooling becomes an imperative for global survival.
19 – Foreign Policy
The Mission for America must have a foreign policy that focuses on building a global clean economy and securing resources for the green transition. This Mission for America foreign policy will:
- Extend financial support to low and middle-income countries for developing a clean economy, offering grants, loans, technology, and materials. This initiative mirrors the post-WWII Marshall Plan, aiming to foster international cooperation and development in the context of environmental sustainability.
- Negotiate strategic partnerships and agreements to secure access to essential natural resources needed for the green transition, including minerals and other critical materials. This component emphasizes diplomatic and commercial efforts to ensure a steady and ethical supply of resources vital for clean technologies.
- Establish new trade relationships that incorporate carbon border adjustments and consider wage differentials and other environmental and social factors. This approach aims to align international trade practices with climate goals, promoting fair and sustainable commerce.
This mission recognizes the critical role of international collaboration and policy in addressing the global climate crisis. The first component of providing financial and technical support to developing nations is not just an act of goodwill but a strategic move to accelerate the worldwide shift to clean energy and technologies. By assisting other countries in their transition, this initiative also opens new markets and opportunities for clean technology exports.
Securing natural resources is a pragmatic acknowledgment of the material needs of the green transition. Through diplomatic engagement and mutually beneficial agreements, this mission seeks to ensure a reliable supply of critical resources while adhering to environmental and social standards.
The third component of revising trade relationships is crucial in leveling the global playing field. The incorporation of carbon border adjustments and other sustainability criteria into trade agreements reflects a commitment to responsible and equitable economic practices. This approach encourages nations to adopt cleaner production methods and fair labor practices, fostering a global economy that is both environmentally sustainable and socially just.
20 – Oceans
The national mission for ocean conservation and restoration is dedicated to addressing critical challenges facing our oceans. This mission will:
- Implement extensive initiatives to clean up oceanic trash, with a particular focus on plastics, employing innovative technologies and methodologies to remove debris from oceans and prevent future pollution.
- Engage in robust efforts to protect and restore marine species under pressure, including habitat conservation, anti-poaching measures, and policies to ensure sustainable fishing practices.
- Address ocean acidification, a growing concern linked to climate change, by researching and implementing strategies to mitigate its impact and protect marine ecosystems.
This mission underscores the importance of oceans in global environmental health and biodiversity. The first component aims to tackle the vast issue of marine debris, primarily plastics, which poses a significant threat to marine life and ocean health. The mission will utilize cutting-edge technology and international collaboration to not only clean existing waste but also prevent future pollution through policy, education, and innovation.
Protecting and restoring endangered marine species is another critical aspect of this mission. It involves a multifaceted approach that includes safeguarding habitats, enforcing anti-poaching laws, and promoting sustainable fishing practices. These efforts are vital for maintaining biodiversity and the ecological balance of oceanic ecosystems.
Addressing ocean acidification is essential to combat one of the less visible but equally devastating effects of increased CO2 emissions. As oceans absorb more carbon dioxide, their acidity increases, impacting a wide range of marine life, particularly species like corals and shellfish. The mission will fund research and implement solutions to reduce ocean acidification, such as carbon capture technologies and efforts to enhance the ocean's natural carbon sequestration abilities.
Through these efforts, the national mission for ocean conservation and restoration aims not only to protect and revive our oceans but also to sustain them for future generations. It's a comprehensive approach to ensure the health and vitality of one of the planet's most crucial and expansive ecosystems.